The Impact of Updated School Meal Standards on Children’s Health


As the field of nutrition continues to advance, it is crucial to assess the impact of government policies and regulations on children’s health. In April, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced updated standards for school meals, with implementation scheduled to begin in the next school year and continue through 2027. These new rules aim to address nutritional concerns in the child and adolescent diet, focusing specifically on reducing added sugars and promoting healthier food choices. In this article, we will delve into the implications of these updated standards and their potential effects on children’s long-term health.

The Need for Change

Childhood and adolescent obesity rates have remained alarmingly high over the past decade, highlighting the necessity of addressing the issue through comprehensive measures. Currently, nearly one in four children or teens in the United States suffers from overweight or obesity, indicating a pressing need for intervention. The USDA’s revisions to school food standards signal an increased commitment from the federal government to improve children’s dietary intake and mitigate the associated risks to their health.

Exploring the New Standards

The revised school meal standards primarily target the consumption of added sugars, a significant contributor to diet-related health risks in children. The rules, to be implemented in school year 2025-2026, introduce limits on added sugars in breakfast cereals, yogurts, and flavored milks. Subsequently, in the following year, the regulations will further restrict all added sugars in school meals to less than 10% of total daily calories.

While the focus on added sugars is undoubtedly a step in the right direction, it is important to address the issue of flavored milks. Flavored milks served in schools are a leading source of added sugars in children’s diets, accounting for a substantial portion of their daily intake. Unfortunately, the final rules did not go as far as the previously proposed changes, which sought to ban flavored milks in elementary schools entirely. This decision, influenced by opposition from the industry, represents a missed opportunity for a more prudent public health approach.

The Truth About Wasted Food

Opponents of banning flavored milks often argue that doing so would result in wasted food, as children might be more likely to throw out unpalatable options. However, evidence does not support this claim. Previous studies conducted by the USDA have demonstrated that updated nutrition standards for schools led to healthier food intake without a significant increase in wasted amounts. Smaller pilot programs setting new standards, such as the replacement of flavored with unflavored milks, revealed that children are more inclined to discard less-palatable options, such as new vegetables and fruits, rather than milk. It is crucial not to overstate the impact of healthier school food rules on wasted food, as popular media often tends to do.

Missed Opportunities

As researchers and clinicians dedicated to improving children’s diets, we recognize certain gaps in the new rules when compared to earlier proposed changes. For instance, early versions of the regulations called for nearly all weekly servings of grains to be whole, whereas the final rules maintain the status quo of 80% of grains being “whole-grain rich.” Whole grains play a crucial role in reducing the risk of chronic diseases, and children often fall below recommended levels of whole grain intake. This represents a missed opportunity to establish higher dietary standards.

Similarly, the rules also overlooked original proposals to progressively reduce sodium levels in school meals. Instead of a 10% year-over-year reduction, the final target aims for a 15% overall reduction of sodium in lunches and 10% in breakfasts by school year 2027-2028. Given that many children already consume excessive amounts of sodium, this weaker final rule fails to address the urgent need to reduce long-term health risks effectively.

The Positive Outlook

While it is tempting to criticize the softened end points in the final rules, it is important to recognize and appreciate the substantial improvements that they will bring to children’s diets. By implementing these changes, the USDA offers an opportunity to positively impact the lives of millions of children. As researchers working in this field, we are eager to test the hypothesis that these updated standards will indeed improve children’s health in significant ways. Rather than dwelling on areas where improvements could have been more substantial, we should focus on leveraging the current momentum and political will to advocate for further enhancements in the U.S. school food program.

Structural Changes and Universal School Meals

To advance the school food program in the United States, it is crucial to consider additional structural changes that can elevate its overall impact. Several high-income countries have successfully implemented universal school meal programs, eliminating administrative burdens on school districts and eradicating the stigma associated with income eligibility verification. By making systemic changes at the highest level, we can improve access to healthier and more nutritious meals for all children. This broader perspective allows us to envision a future where millions more children can benefit from improved school meals.


The recently updated standards for school meals issued by the USDA represent a significant step forward in improving children’s dietary intake and reducing long-term health risks. While some opportunities for more comprehensive changes were missed, the momentum and political will exhibited by the federal government are commendable. By focusing on the reduction of added sugars, these regulations address a crucial aspect of children’s nutritional well-being. Further improvements can be pursued by advocating for structural changes in the U.S. school food program, similar to those implemented in other high-income countries. As researchers committed to enhancing children’s diets, we eagerly anticipate observing the positive effects of these updated standards and aspire to witness the continued improvement of school meals for generations to come.